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We have compiled a collection of useful and informative resources relating to frames in Australia, New Zealand and beyond for those interested in the history, methodology and artistry of the humble and diverse picture frame. 


These resources are intended for use by those seeking to gain insight into the world of frames or for those embarking on research or study. 

Our Resources

Rich & Davis’s Reuben Rich has published a report detailing his interviews with artisans, and his frame-making experience in Turkey and Italy with the International Specialised Skills Institute and sponsored by the George Alexander Foundation

Download it here: Frame Making: Carving, Gilding and Finishing.

High Resolution Document: Report – High Resolution

Low Resolution Document: Report – Low Resolution



Online Resources


The Australian Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Material
A Description of 19th-century American
Gilded Picture Frames and an Outline of Their Modern Use and Conservation
Fine Art Trade Guild London
The Frame Blog
Picture Framers Guild of Australia
Picture Frame Label Blog
Professional Picture Framers Association
Suzanne Smeaton





1947 The Practical Painter and Decorator, Odhams Press Limited, London

2001 S. A. Parker Framing Works, Art Gallery of New South Wales Manuscript Guides No 6, Australia

2007 Art & Picture framing Glossary of Standard Terms, Professional Picture Framers Association (PPFA) America

Anonymous 1876 The Gilder’s Manual: A Complete Guide to Gilding and Silvering, Picture Framing and Repairing, Fredonia Books, Amsterdam

Baird, H 1876 The Painter, Gilder and Varnisher’s Companion, 16th ed, Henry Carey Baird Industrial Publisher, Philadelphia

Baldy, R, Lisini, G, Martelli, C & Martelli, S 1992 La Cornice Fiorentia e Senese: Storia e Tecniche di Restauro, Alinea Editrice, Italy

Binstead, H 1929 The Furniture Styles, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, London

Campana, D 1947 Teacher of Picture Frames Finishing, Campana Co Publishers, Chicago

Carter, P 1993 Illuminated Calligraphy, Search Press Limited, England

Cockburn, S 1995 Technology And Related Issues Of Frame Conservation, International Specialized Skills, Australia

Colle, E & Zambrano, P 2009 La Cornice Italiana: Dal Rinascimento al Neoclassico, Mondadori Electa, Italy

Cunning, R 2004 The Encyclopedia Of Picture Framing Techniques: A Comprehensive Visual Guide to Traditional and Contemporary Techniques, Quarto Publishing, London

Curson, P 1992 A Woodworking Master-Series Book, Skills Book Publishing, Australia

Davis, D 2007 The Secret Lives of Frames: One hundred Years of Art and Artistry, Filipacchi Publishing, New York

Dunbar, M 1989 Restoring, Tuning & Using Classic Woodworking Tools, Sterling Publishing Co, New York

Drucker, M & Finkelstein, P 1990 Recipes For Surfaces: Decorative Paint Finishes Made Simple, Simon & Schuster Australia, Australia

Federer, F 2012 Gold Leaf Paint & Glass, Thomas Publications, London

Ford & Mimmack 1909 The Art and Science of Gilding: Hastings and Co: A Hand Book of Information for the Picture Framer, Ford & Mimmack, New York

Fuchs, S 1985 Der Bilderrahmen, A Bongers, Germany

Hasluck, P 1977 Manual of Traditional Wood Carving, ed, Dover Publications, New York

Hasluck, P 1977 Manual of Traditional Wood Carving, ed, Dover Publications, New York

Horowitz, M & Tilmont, L 1998 An introduction to Water Gilding, PFM PubCo, Manalapan

Hodgson, F 1904 Practical Up-To-Date Hardwood Finisher, Frederic J. Drake and Company, Chicago

Irish, L 1999 Classic Carving Patterns, The Taunton Press, Newtown

Jones, B ed 1920 The Practical Wood Worker, The Waverley book Company, London

Karraker, G 2009 Looking at European Frames a Guide to Terms, Styles, and Techniques, Getty Publications, Los Angeles

Lodi, R & Montanari, A 2003 Repertorio Della Cornice Europea: Italia, Francia, Spagna, Paesi Bassi, 2nd edition, Modena, Italy

Lowy, J 2000 Antique Spanish Frames From the Lowy Collection, Lowy, New York

Leoffler, R 1992 Step By Step Compo and Mold Making, Loeffler- Valac Industries, California

Maryanski, R 1973 Antique Picture Frame Guide, Cedar Forest Co, Illinois

Mitchell, P & Roberts, L, 1996, Frameworks: Form, Function and Ornament in European Portrait Frames, Merrel Holberton, London’ and then add new line ‘Mitchell, P & Roberts, L, 1996, A History of European Picture Frames, London

Morell, H 1991 Victorian Wooden Moulding and Frame Designs: The 1910 Morell Catalog, London

Mosco, M 2007 Medici frames: Baroque Caprice for the Medici Princes, Edizioni Polistampa; Bilingual edition, Italy

Mulford, T 1997 Tasmanian Framemakers 1830-1930: A Directory, Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery, Launceston

Mulford, T 1997 Tasmanian Framemakers 1830-1930. Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery, Launceston

Nelson, J 2004 Woodworker’s Guide To Making Traditional Mirrors & Picture Frames, Fox Chapel Publishing Company, East Petersburg

Newbery, T 2007 The Robert Lehman Collection XIII: Frames, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Newman, B 1989 Mobili Di Fantasia, Rizzoli, Italy

O’Neil, I 1971 The Art of the Painted Finish for Furniture and Decoration, The Conde Nast Publications, new York

Payne, J 2007 Framing the Nineteenth Century: Picture Frames 1837-1935, The Images Publishing Group. Australia

Penny, N 2010 A Closer Look: Frames, The National Gallery Company, London

Roessing, H 1991 2,286 Traditional Stencil Designs, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia and Dover Publications, New York

Sabatelli, F 2009 La Cornice Italiana, Electa, Milan, Italy

Savage, W, 1925 Practical Picture Frame Making: Gilding and Window Glazing, Austin Rogers & Company, London

Savory, C 1880-1891 The Practical Carver and Gilders Guide and Picture Frame Makers Companion, Fourth ed, Kent and Company, London

Scott-Mitchell, F 1905 Practical Gilding: Bronzing and Lacquering, The Trade papers Publishing Company, London

Simon, J 1997 The Art of the Picture Frame: Artists, Patrons and the Framing of Portraits in Britain, National Portrait Gallery Publications, London

Spon, E 1875 Workshop Receipts: for the Use of Manufacturers, Mechanics and Scientific Amateurs, E. &F. N. Spon, Charing Cross, London

Wheeler, W & Hayward, C 1963 Practical Wood Carving and Gilding, Evans Brothers Limited, London

Whitely, K 2010 The Gilded Page: The History of Technique in Manuscript Gilding, Second ed, Oak Nell Press & The British Library, USA

Wilbur, F 2004 Carving Classical Styles in Wood, Guild of Master Craftsman Publications, East Sussex 

Wilner, E & Kaufman, M 1999 Antique American Frames: Identification and Price Guide, Avon Books, New York




1999 Melbourne Journal of Technical Studies in Art: Frames, The University of Melbourne, Vol 1

2011 Chip-Carving Display, Caroline Simspon Library and Research Collection, Australia.

2015 J. J. Spilker History, Vintage Machinery,

2015 Lady Woodcarvers of Rockhampton, Queensland Art Gallery, Rockhampton City Council, Australia. 

2015 Nellie Payne Woodcarver, Sesquicentenary Exhibition Westbury, Westbury & Districts Historical Society, Tasmania, Australia

Cannon- Brookes, P 1996 Editorial: The dispersal of Paul Levi’s archive of antique picture frames, Museum Management and Curatorship, Vol 15, No 1, pp. 1-7. DOI: 10.1080/09647779609515464

Cant, E 1999 Entrepreneurship and Picture Frame Making in Nineteenth-Century Australia: Lawrence Cetta and the Quick Profit, The World of Antiques and Art incorporating the Australian Antique Collector, 57th edition, Australia pp.44-45.

Espinoza, A. M 1999 A Framemaker of Colonial Melbourne: Isaac Whitehead c. 1819-1881, Melbourne Journal of Technical Studies in Art, The University of Melbourne, Vol 1, pp. 33-48. 

Fleming, W 2014 Western Architecture: Romanesque, Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Glover, H 2006 A Description of 19th-century American Gilded Picture Frames and an Outline of Their Modern Use and Conservation, 2006 WAG Postprints – Providence, Rhode Island.

Kanter, B & Bisacca, G 2008  “Italian Renaissance Frames” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Keane, M 2009 Looking at Tramp Art With Author Clifford Wallach, Collectors Weekly.,

Maddocks, H 1992 Picture Frame Studies in Australia: Museum Management and Curatorship, Vol 11, No 2, pp. 133-139.

McGowan-Jackson, H 2008 Frame Conservation in Australia and GOCSIG: Reflections on the Past and Thoughts for the Future, AICCM, Australia.

Millon, H 2014 Western Architecture: The Renaissance, Encyclopedia Britannica.

Mitchell, P 1984 Italian Picture Frames 1500-1825: A Brief Survey, Furniture History, Vol 20, pp. 18-27,

Murphy, C 2008 Works on Paper and Their Frames: Research, Collaboration and Documentation, AICCM.

Newhouse, C 1999 John Thallon 1848-1918, Melbourne Journal of Technical Studies in Art, Vol 1, Frames, The University of Melbourne Conservation Service, Australia

Pearson, J. H 1990 The Politics of Framing in the Later Nineteenth Century, Mosaic, Vol 23, No 1, p.138.

Reynolds, G 2001 The Australian Framing Industry, Graham Reynolds Pty Ltd, Brisbane, Australia.

Sabatelli, F & Nistri, R, Le Cornici Italiene, AlborNews, Florence, Italy.

Sawicki, M 1995 Picture Frames Conservation or Repairing, AICCM Bulletin, Vol 20, No 2.

Sawicki, M 2000 From ‘Lady in Black’ to ‘Art Student: The story behind changing a frame, Art Gallery of New South Wales.

Smeaton, S 1994 Reproductions or Exact Replica Frames? Learning to See the Difference, Eli Wilner & Company Period Frames, NYC.

Villis, C & Ellem, A (eds) 2008 Paintings Conservation in Australia from the Nineteenth Century to the Present: Connecting the Past to the Future, AICCM.

Wallach, C 2005, Tramp Art, Folk Art & Americana, History of Tramp Art.

Yalman, S 2002 The Art of the Ottomans before 1600, The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Zilli, R 2009 Conservation Gilding: Heritage Skill Deficiencies. International Specialised Skills Institute, Melbourne.

Zubrowsky, J 2014 Western Architecture: The End of Gothic, Encyclopaedia Brittanica.

If you know of a resource relating to frame making or frame history that you cannot see listed above, we would love to hear from you so that we can add it to our list. 

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